DM$^2$S$^2$: Deep Multi-Modal Sequence Sets with Hierarchical Modality Attention


There is increasing interest in the use of multimodal data in various web applications, such as digital advertising and e-commerce. Typical methods for extracting important information from multimodal data rely on a mid-fusion architecture that combines the feature representations from multiple encoders. However, as the number of modalities increases, several potential problems with the mid-fusion model structure arise, such as an increase in the dimensionality of the concatenated multimodal features and missing modalities. To address these problems, we propose a new concept that considers multimodal inputs as a set of sequences, namely, deep multimodal sequence sets (DM$^2$S$^2$). Our set-aware concept consists of three components that capture the relationships among multiple modalities: (a) a BERT-based encoder to handle the inter- and intra-order of elements in the sequences, (b) intra-modality residual attention (IntraMRA) to capture the importance of the elements in a modality, and (c) inter-modality residual attention (InterMRA) to enhance the importance of elements with modality-level granularity further. Our concept exhibits performance that is comparable to or better than the previous set-aware models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the visualization of the learned InterMRA and IntraMRA weights can provide an interpretation of the prediction results.

Shunsuke Kitada
Shunsuke Kitada
Ph.D student working on Deep Learning

My research interests include deep learning-based natural language processing, computer vision, medical image processing, and computational advertising.