DM$^2$S$^2$: Deep Multi-Modal Sequence Sets with Hierarchical Modality Attention


There is increasing interest in the use of multimodal data in various web applications, such as digital advertising and e-commerce. Typical methods for extracting important information from multimodal data rely on a mid-fusion architecture that combines the feature representations from multiple encoders. However, as the number of modalities increases, several potential problems with the mid-fusion model structure arise, such as an increase in the dimensionality of the concatenated multimodal features and missing modalities. To address these problems, we propose a new concept that considers multimodal inputs as a set of sequences, namely, deep multimodal sequence sets (DM$^2$S$^2$). Our set-aware concept consists of three components that capture the relationships among multiple modalities: (a) a BERT-based encoder to handle the inter- and intra-order of elements in the sequences, (b) intra-modality residual attention (IntraMRA) to capture the importance of the elements in a modality, and (c) inter-modality residual attention (InterMRA) to enhance the importance of elements with modality-level granularity further. Our concept exhibits performance that is comparable to or better than the previous set-aware models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the visualization of the learned InterMRA and IntraMRA weights can provide an interpretation of the prediction results.

IEEE Access

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Shunsuke Kitada, Ph.D.
Shunsuke Kitada, Ph.D.
Research Scientist working on Vision & Language with Deep Learning

My research interests include deep learning-based natural language processing, computer vision, medical image processing, and computational advertising.